The heat flow statement of the second law of
thermodynamics: Heat flows spontaneously from a substance at
high temperature to a substance at lower temperature; it does
not flow spontaneously in the reverse direction.
Essential features of a heat engine:
Heat is supplied to the engine at high T
Part of the input heat is used to do work
The remainder is rejected at a lower T.
Efficiency of a heat engine e = 1 Qc/QH, where QH is the
input heat taken in at the higher T, and Qc is the heat
rejected at the lower T.
Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law: It is impossible
to construct a heat engine, operating in a cycle, with
efficiency e equal to 1.
Heat pump: It takes energy from a cold object, along with
energy input by work, and it rejects heat to a hot
Clausius statement of the second law: It is impossible to
construct a machine that transfers energy from a cold object to
a hot object without the input of energy by work.
Heat Engines and Second Law of Thermodynamics
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book offers a complete review of your AP course, strategies to give you the edge on test day, and plenty of practice with AP-style test questions. It includes full length practice exams modeled on the real test and all the terms and concepts you need to know.
This book includes a review of all the topics tested including vectors, kinematics, fluid mechanics, optics and nuclear physics. Additionally, the book includes two full length tests made complete with descriptive solutions, and quick study tables for Physics B formulas and equations.